Capital city : Tehran
Official language : Persian
Population : estimated at 81,000,000 in 2017
Main ethnic groups : 79% Indo-European ethno-linguistic group, 61%Persians (incl. Mazenderanis and Gilaks)
Major language: 58% of the population speaks Persian or Persian dialects, 26% Turkic or Turkic dialects, 9% Kurdish, 2% Luri, 1% Balochi, 1% Arabic, 1% Turkish, and 2% other.
Main religions Official: Islam
Other recognized religions: Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism
Area : 1648,195 km2(636,372 sq mi)
Currency : Rial (IRR)
Main agricultural products : wheat, sugar beets, barley, rice, grapes, apples, oranges, dates, cotton, tea, and tobacco, pistachios, almonds
Main Industries : animal husbandry, fishing, forestry, mining, energy and power, textile industry, natural gas industry, petrochemical industry
GDP per Capita: $5,383
Culture & Religions of Iran
The earliest attested cultures in Iran date back to the Lower Paleolithic. Iran’s carpet-weaving has its origins in the Bronze Age, and is one of the most distinguished manifestations of Iranian art. Iran is the world’s largest producer and exporter of handmade carpets, producing three quarters of the world’s total output and having a share of 30% of world’s export markets
Today, Twelver Shia Islam is the official state religion, to which about 90% to 95% of the populations adhere. About 4% to 8% of the population are Sunni Muslims, mainly Kurds and Baloches. The remaining 2% are non-Muslim religiousminorities,including Christians, Jews, Bahais, Mandeans, Yezidis, Yarsanis, and Zoroastrians. About 8,756 to 25,000Jewish people live in Iran. Iran has the largest Jewish population in the Middle East outside of Israel. Around 250,000 to 370,000 Christians reside in Iran.
Legal public holidays based on the Iranian solar calendar include the cultural celebrations of Nowruz (Farvardin 1–4; 21–24 March) and Sizdebedar (Farvardin 13; 2 April), and the political events of Islamic Republic Day (Farvardin 12; 1 April), the death of Ruhollah Khomeini (Khordad 14; 4 June), the Khordad 15 event (Khordad 15; 5 June), the anniversary of the 1979 Revolution (Bahman 22; 10 February), and Oil Nationalization Day (Esfand 29; 19 March).
Freq. used 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 50,000, 100,000 rials
Rarely used 100, 200, 500, 1,000 rials
Freq. used 500, 1,000, 2,000, 5,000 rials
Rarely used 50, 100, 250 rials
Geography of Iran
Iran consists of the Iranian Plateau, with the exception of the coasts of the Caspian Sea and Khuzestan. It is one of the world’s most mountainous countries, its landscape dominated by rugged mountain ranges that separate various basins or plateaux from one another. The populous western part is the most mountainous, with ranges such as the Caucasus, Zagros, and Alborz, the last containing Mount Damavand, Iran’s highest point at 5,610 m (18,406 ft), which is also the highest mountain on the Eurasian landmass west of the Hindu Kush.
The northern part of Iran is covered by the lush lowland Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests, located near the southern shores of the Caspian Sea. The eastern part consists mostly of desert basins, such as the Kavir Desert, which is the country’s largest desert, and the Lut Desert, as well as some salt lakes.
The only large plains are found along the coast of the Caspian Sea and at the northern end of the Persian Gulf, where the country borders the mouth of the Arvand River. Smaller, discontinuous plains are found along the remaining coast of the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Gulf of Oman.
Iran Time Zone
Iran Daylight Time UTC +4:30
Iran Standard Time UTC +3:30